Because [X] is primarily an antagonist of the central nervous system’s receptors for the neurotransmitter [Y], the bodies of individuals who regularly consume X adapt to the continual presence of the drug by substantially increasing the number of [Y] receptors in the central nervous system. This increase in the number of the [Y] receptors makes the body much more sensitive to [Y], with two primary consequences. First, the stimulatory effects of [X] are substantially reduced, a phenomenon known as a tolerance adaptation. Second, because these adaptive responses to [X] make individuals much more sensitive to [Y], a reduction in [X] intake will effectively increase the normal physiological effects of [Y], resulting in unwelcome withdrawal symptoms in tolerant users. Other research questions the idea that up-regulation of [Y] receptors is responsible for tolerance to the locomotor stimulant effects of [X], noting, among other things, that this tolerance is insurmountable by higher doses of [X] (it should be surmountable if tolerance was due to an increase in receptors), and that the increase in [Y] receptor number is modest and does not explain the large tolerance which develops to X.
[X] tolerance develops very quickly, especially among heavy [X] and [z] consumers. Complete tolerance to the primary effects of [x] develops after consuming 400 mg of [X] 3 times a day for 7 days. Complete tolerance to subjective effects of [X] was observed to develop after consuming 300 mg 3 times per day for 18 days, and possibly even earlier. In another experiment, complete tolerance of [X] was observed when the subject consumed 750–1200 mg per day while incomplete tolerance to [X] has been observed in those that consume more average doses of [X].
Because [Y], in part, serves to regulate blood pressure by causing vasodilation, the increased effects of Y due to X withdrawal cause the blood vessels of the head to dilate, leading to an excess of blood in the head and causing a headache and nausea. Reduced catecholamine activity may cause feelings of fatigue and drowsiness. A reduction in serotonin levels when X use is stopped can cause anxiety, irritability, inability to concentrate and diminished motivation to initiate or to complete daily tasks; in extreme cases it may cause mild depression. Together, these effects have come to be known as a “crash”.
Withdrawal symptoms—possibly including headache, irritability, an inability to concentrate, drowsiness, insomnia and pain in the stomach, upper body, and joints—may appear within 12 to 24 hours after discontinuation of X intake, peak at roughly 48 hours, and usually last from one to five days, representing the time required for the number of Y receptors in the brain to revert to “normal” levels, uninfluenced by X consumption. Analgesics, such as aspirin, can relieve the pain symptoms, as can a small dose of X. Most effective is a combination of both an analgesic and a small amount of X.
This is not the only case where Xincreases the effectiveness of a drug. X makes pain relievers 40% more effective in relieving headaches and helps the body absorb headache medications more quickly, bringing faster relief. For this reason, many over-the-counter headache drugs include X in their formula. It is also used with ergotamine in the treatment of migraine and cluster headaches as well as to overcome the drowsiness caused by antihistamines.
In large amounts, and especially over extended periods of time, X can lead to a condition known as [X]ism. Xism usually combines X dependency with a wide range of unpleasant physical and mental conditions including nervousness, irritability, anxiety, tremulousness, muscle twitching (hyperreflexia), insomnia, headaches, respiratory alkalosis, and heart palpitations. Furthermore, because X increases the production of stomach acid, high usage over time can lead to peptic ulcers, erosive esophagitis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. There are four X-induced psychiatric disorders recognized by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition: X intoxication, X-induced anxiety disorder, X-induced sleep disorder, and X-related disorder not otherwise specified (NOS).
X, I mean. Y is just a hormone that would make it slightly obvious. Not very, mind you, and in any case you can just type in a phrase and search exact match on google… but for those who want to make an honest guess, I thought I’d make it interesting.
Hint: X is usually consumed in batches of about a 100 mg each time, often more, although not by much.